Scottish Place-Name Society | Specialised Bibliography
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BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR ‘SCOTTISH TOPONYMICS’

 

(compiled by Simon Taylor, updated February 2013).

 

Please contact the webmaster if you think there are any omissions to this list.

MAIN WORKS

Nicolaisen, W.F.H. 1976 Scottish Place-Names: this remains by far the best general introduction to the subject of Scottish place-names, and is the bench-mark for all subsequent work on the subject, although in need of revision on several fronts (slightly revised edition with new bibliography, Edinburgh, 2001).

 

Taylor, S, 1998 (ed.), The Uses of Place-Names (Edinburgh): looks at place-names as a tool for various disciplines, including language (Scottish Gaelic – R. Ó Maolalaigh), history (Scotland – G.W.S. Barrow), historical geography (England – M. Gelling), archaeology (Wales – T. James, and Shetland – S.S. Hansen & D. Waugh), literature (Gaelic ballads – D. Meek) & environmental politics (Wales – H. James); general introduction (Simon Taylor).

 

The History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland (Edinburgh and London; reprinted several times, most recently Edinburgh (Birlinn) 2004, with new Introduction, corrigenda, some addenda and a full W. J. Watson bibliography by Simon Taylor): the bible of Celtic place-name studies in Scotland, unsurpassed as a reference work, it also has important chapters on saints, church terms, river names, etc.

 

*Online here Introduction , General Survey of Dumfries and Galloway, General Survey of Lothian,General Survey of Scotland North of Forth and General Survey of Ayrshire and Strathclyde*

 

Helpful to use with it is:

 

Basden, E., 1997, Index of Celtic Elements in Professor W.J. Watson’s The History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland (1926) together with an Index of Subjects (compiled 1978, published by the Scottish Place-Name Society, Edinburgh).

 

Watson W.J. 2002, Scottish Place-Name Papers (London and Edinburgh, Steve Savage). Ed. Nicolaisen.

 

Good general introductions are the sections on place-names in:

 

Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, edd. Peter McNeill and Hector MacQueen (1996) [though some of the distribution maps need reworking; also its predecessor, An Historical Atlas of Scotland, c.400-c.1600, edd. P. McNeill and R. Nicholson (1975)].

 

Celtic Culture: An Encyclopedia, ed. John T. Koch 5 vols (Santa Barbara, USA 2006) (S. Taylor).
The Companion to Gaelic Scotland, ed. D.S. Thomson (rev. ed. Glasgow 1994) under ‘place-names’: pp. 226-36.

 

The Companion to Gaelic Scotland, ed. D.S. Thomson (rev. ed. Glasgow 1994) under ‘place-names’: pp.226-36.

 

The Edinburgh Companion to the Gaelic Language, ed. Moray Watson and Michelle MacLeod (Edinburgh University Press 2010), pp. 46-62 (R. A. V. Cox).

 

The Edinburgh Companion to Scots, ed. John Corbett et al. (Edinburgh University Press), 17-30 (M. Scott).

 

Oxford Companion to Scottish History, gen. ed. Michael Lynch (Oxford 2001), pp. 479–84 (S. Taylor).

GAZETEERS

Ordnance Survey Landranger Gazetteer – all names on the O.S. Landranger (1:50,000 or 2 cm one km) maps of Britain.

 

Ordnance Survey Pathfinder Gazetteer – all names on the O.S. Pathfinder (1:25,000) maps of Scotland; compiled by Robin Hooker.

 

Note also:

 

Black, G.F., 1946, The Surnames of Scotland (New York; reprinted 1993, Edinburgh). An excellent survey of Scottish surnames, but also includes early forenames, and much of relevance to place-names, including surnames derived from places, and personal names contained in early place-names.

 

Ekwall, E., 1960, Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, fourth edition.

 

Nicolaisen, W.F.H., et al., 1970, The Names of Towns and Cities in Britain, compiled by Margaret Gelling, W.F.H. Nicolaisen & Melville Richards, ed. W.F.H. Nicolaisen.

 

Place-Names on Maps of Scotland and Wales, Ordnance Survey: glossary of common Gaelic and Scandinavian place-name elements (latest edn. 1981, price £5.70).

 

PLACE-NAME ELEMENTS: There is a series of Ordnance Survey web-based publications for three of the languages which have made an important contribution to the place-names of Scotland: Gaelic, Scandinavian (Norse) and Scots. Each consists of an Introduction, which includes some basic grammar as it relates to place-name formation, and a Glossary of common place-name elements.

 

For Gaelic Place-Names (Introduction by Simon Taylor):
The pdf of the 41-page booklet, with Introduction, can be downloaded on:
http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/docs/ebooks/guide-to-gaelic-origins-of-place-names.pdf

 

For Scandinavian (Norse) Place-Names (Introduction by Anke-Beate Stahl):
The pdf of the 12-page booklet, with Introduction, can be downloaded on:
http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/docs/ebooks/guide-to-scandinavian-origins-of-place-names.pdf

 

For Scots Place-Names (Introduction by Simon Taylor):
The pdf of the 22-page booklet, with Introduction, can be downloaded on:
http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/docs/ebooks/guide-to-scots-origins-of-place-names.pdf

 

There is a fourth such site concerning Welsh Place-Names; see:
http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/support/knowledgebase/place-name-origins/welsh/index.html

 

Warning: Most of the more popular guides and dictionaries are written on the basis of unsound methodology and information, and are best avoided. This includes almost any small, one volume work covering the whole of Scotland. Two exceptions to this are: Alison Grant’s The Pocket Guide to Scottish Place-Names (Glasgow 2010); and Maggie Scott’s Scottish Place Names (2008). A problematic example is J. B. Johnston, Place-Names of Scotland (1934). It is often seriously off the mark when dealing with etymologies, but it does contain early forms of names (unfortunately not usually sourced).

 

Bibliography:

 

Spittall, J. & Field, J. 1990, A Reader’s Guide to the Place-Names of the United Kingdom (1920-89) (Stamford): a bibliography of publications (1920-89) on the place-names of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.

GENERAL PLACE-NAME STUDIES

The following books or parts of books provide an excellent introduction to the subject from a non-Scottish angle, but with much that is relevant to Scotland:

 

Cameron, K., 1996, English Place Names: new edition of book which first appeared in 1961; unfortunately the important chapter ‘Place-Names and Archaeology’ found in the earlier editions has been omitted from the new one (paperback, £17.99).

 

Flanagan, D. and Flanagan, L. 1994 Irish Place Names (Dublin).

 

Gelling, M., 1984, Place-Names in the Landscape (London) an analysis of topographical settlement-names i.e. names of settlements which derive from landscape features e.g. Longridge. Although about England, the points she makes in her Introduction regarding the importance and age of such names are also very relevant for Scotland (paperback edn. 1993, £12.99).

 

Gelling, M., 1988, Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England (1st edn. 1978; 2nd edn. Chichester): described by the author herself as a sequel to Cameron’s book (latest edn. £12.95).

 

Gelling, Margaret, and Cole, Anne, 2000, The Landscape of Place-Names (Stamford).

 

Owen, Hywel Wyn, and Morgan, Richard, 2007, Dictionary of the Place-Names of Wales (Llandysul).

 

Padel, O. J., 1988, Cornish Place-Names (Penzance): the Introduction (pp.1-48) is a good summary of the methods and problems of place-name studies in general, as well as discussing Cornish place-names in particular (£5.95)

THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL STUDIES

Cox, R. A. V., 1989, ‘Questioning the value and validity of the term ‘hybrid’ in Hebridean place-name study’, Nomina 12, 1-9.

 

Cox, R. A. V., 1991, ‘Allt Loch Dhaile Beaga: Place-name Study in the West of Scotland’, Nomina 14 (1990-91), 83-96.

 

Hough, Carole, 2009, ‘The Role of Onomastics in Historical Linguistics’, The Journal of Scottish Name Studies 3, 29–46.

 

Mac Giolla Easpaig, D. 1981, ‘Noun + Noun Compounds in Irish Placenames’, Etudes Celtiques 18, 151-63.

 

Nicolaisen, W.F.H., 1961 ‘Notes on Scottish Place-names: 16. The Interpretation of Name-changes’, Scottish Studies 5, 85-96.

 

Nicolaisen, W.F.H., 1975 ‘Place-Names in Bilingual Communities’, Names 23, 167-74.

 

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1989 ‘Place-Name Maps – How Reliable Are They?’ Studia Onomastica (Festskrift til Thorsten Andersson) edd. L. Peterson and S. Strandberg (Stockholm), 261-68.

 

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 2011, In the Beginning was the Name: Selected Essays by Professor W.F. H. Nicolaisen (Scottish Place-Name Society, Edinburgh) [with a full bibliography of his publications to date].

 

Stewart, G. R., 1975 Names on the Globe, (New York, Oxford University Press): detailed introduction to place-names and place-naming throughout the world, and throughout history. Refreshing non-European view (out of print).

 

Taylor, S. 1997, ‘Generic-Element Variation, with Special Reference to Eastern Scotland’, Nomina 20, 5-22. [important for the discussion of elements such as pett and baile.]

 

Toner, G., 1999, ‘The definite article in Irish place-names’, Nomina 22, 5-24.

LANGUAGES AND LANGUAGE CONTACT IN SCOTLAND

CELTIC (general)

Isaac, Graham R., 2005, ‘Scotland’, in de Hoz, J., Lujan, E.R., Sims-Williams, P. (eds), 2005 New approaches to Celtic Place-Names in Ptolemy’s Geography (Madrid), 189-214

 

Surveys:

 

Watson CPNS, ch. XI ‘British names’ and ch. XII ‘British-Gaelic names’.

 

Nicolaisen, SPN, ch. 8 ‘P-Celtic names: Pictish and Cumbric’

 

Jackson in Thomson, Companion to Gaelic Scotland, under ‘Place-names, British and Pictish’.

 

Forsyth, K., 1997, Language in Pictland (Utrecht) [available on-line at http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/2081/01/languagepictland.pdf]

 

Koch, John T., 1983, ‘The Loss of Final Syllables and Loss of Declension in Brittonic’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 30, 201-33.

 

Jackson, K.H., 1955, ‘The Pictish Language’ in The Problem of the Picts, ed. F.T. Wainwright (reprinted Perth, 1980).

 

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1996, The Picts and their Place Names (Groam House Museum lecture publications, Rosemarkie).

 

Taylor, Simon, 2011, ‘Pictish place-names revisited’, in Pictish Progress: New Studies on Northern Britain in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Stephen T. Driscoll, Jane Geddes and Mark A. Hall (Leiden and Boston [Brill]), 67-118. [Published November 2010.]

PICTISH

Forsyth, K., 1997, Language in Pictland (Utrecht) [available on-line at http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/2081/01/languagepictland.pdf]

 

Jackson, K.H., 1955, ‘The Pictish Language’ in The Problem of the Picts, ed. F.T. Wainwright (reprinted Perth, 1980).

 

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1996, The Picts and their Place Names (Groam House Museum lecture publications, Rosemarkie).

 

Taylor, Simon, 2011, ‘Pictish place-names revisited’, in Pictish Progress: New Studies on Northern Britain in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Stephen T. Driscoll, Jane Geddes and Mark A. Hall (Leiden and Boston [Brill]), 67-118.

BRITISH (=Cumbric/Welsh)

Surveys:

 

Watson CPNS, ch. XI ‘British names’ and ch. XII ‘British-Gaelic names’.

 

Note: Andrew Breeze has written about several British place-names in short articles in a range of journals, including Innes Review, Northern History, Scottish Language and Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society. [you can download a list of Andrew Breeze’s publications from http://www.unav.es/linguis/AndrewBreeze/]

 

Fox, Bethany, 2007, ‘The P-Celtic Place-Names of North-East England and South-East Scotland’, The Heroic Age (An on-line Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe) 10 http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/10/fox.html

 

Hough, Carole, 2001, ‘P-Celtic tref in Scottish Place-Names’, Notes and Queries 48, No.3, September 2001, 213-15.
Jackson in Thomson, Companion to Gaelic Scotland, under ‘Place-names, British and Pictish’.

 

Jackson, K.H., 1953 Language and History in Early Britain (Edinburgh).

 

Jackson, K.H., 1955 ‘The Britons in Southern Scotland’, Antiquity 29, 77-88.

 

Jackson, K.H., 1963 ‘Angles and Britons in Northumbria and Cumbria’, in Angles and Britons: O’Donnell Lectures (Cardiff), 60-84.

 

James, Alan BLITON (Brittonic Language in the Old North) at this web site.

 

James, Alan G., 2011, ‘Dating Brittonic Place-names in Southern Scotland and Cumbria’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 5, 57–114.

 

Koch, John T., 1983, ‘The Loss of Final Syllables and Loss of Declension in Brittonic’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 30, 201-33.
Nicolaisen, SPN, ch. 8 ‘P-Celtic names: Pictish and Cumbric’

FRENCH

Barrow, G. W. S., 1999, ‘French after the Style of Petithachengon’, in Church, Chronicle and Learning in Medieval and Early Renaissance Scotland: Essays Presented to Donald Watt on the Occasion of the Completion of the Publication of Bower’s Scotichronicon, ed. Barbara E. Crawford (Edinburgh), 187-93.

GAELIC

Surveys:

 

Watson CPNS, ch. XII ‘British-Gaelic names’ and ch. XIII ‘Some general terms’.

 

Nicolaisen, SPN, ch. 7 ‘Gaelic names’

 

In Thomson, Companion to Gaelic Scotland: MacQueen ‘Place-names, Gaelic, in Galloway and Ayrshire’; Jackson, ‘Place-names, Gaelic, in Pictland’, Nicolaisen, ‘Place-names, Gaelic, in Scotland’.

 

A useful listing of Gaelic names and terms is in
MacAulay, D. 1971-2 Studying the place names of Bernera’, Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 47, 316-18: basic elements; 318-29: examples of modifying elements, stucture and usage of Gaelic place-names.

 

Also on Ordnance Survey website, Gaelic Place-Names

 

Barrow, G.W.S., 1989, ‘The Lost Gàidhealtachd’, in Alba agus a’ Ghàidhlig: Gaelic and Scotland, ed. W.Gillies, 67-88 [also in Barrow, G.W.S. 1992, Scotland and its Neighbours in the Middle Ages (London), 105-26]. Important material relating to Gaelic place-names in Scotland.

 

Clancy, Thomas Owen, 2011, ‘Gaelic in Medieval Scotland: Advent and Expansion’, Proceedings of the British Academy 167, 349-92 [Sir John Rhŷs Memorial Lecture, March 2009].

 

MacBain, A., 1911, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (reprinted by Gairm Publications 1982).

 

MacIlleathain, Ruaraidh, 2007, A’ Ghàidhlig air Aghaidh na Tìre/Gaelic in the Landscape (Place names in the North West Highlands), Scottish Natural Heritage (bilingual Gaelic and English). Currently out of print, but available online on www.snh.org.uk

 

Nicolaisen, W.F.H., 1970 ‘Gaelic Place-names in Southern Scotland’, Studia Celtica 5, 15-35.

 

Ó Maolalaigh, R. 1998 ‘Place-names as a resource for the historical linguist’, in Taylor, Uses of Place-Names, 12-53.
Taylor, S., 1996/7 ‘Ainmean Gàidhlig air a’Ghalldachd Gaelic names in the Scottish Lowlands’, Cothrom 10, 17-20. [Pictish and Gaelic interaction, as evidenced in place-names]

 

Taylor, S., 1997 ‘Gàidhlig an Dùthchas nan Gall/Gaelic in Lowland Heritage’, Cothrom 11, 14-16. [Gaelic and Scots interaction, as evidenced in place-names]

NORSE

Surveys:

 

Nicolaisen, SPN, ch.6 ‘Scandinavian names’; NB to be read in conjunction with Rixson 2010 (‘Shadow’)

 

Oftedal in Thomson, Companion to Gaelic Scotland, under ‘Place-names, Norse’.

 

A very useful listing of common Norse names and terms is in
MacAulay, D. 1971-2 ‘Studying the place names of Bernera’, Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 47, 329-30: basic elements; 330-6: examples of modifying elements, stucture and usage of Norse place-names.

 

See also on Ordnance Survey web-site, Scandinavian Place-Names

 

Cox, R. A. V., 1989a, ‘Place-name evidence in the west of Lewis: approaches and problems in establishing a profile of Norse settlement’, Scottish Archaeological Review 6, 107-15.

 

Cox, R. A. V., 1990a, ‘The origin and relative chronology of shader-names in the Hebrides’, Scottish Gaelic Studies 16, 95-113.

 

Cox, R. A. V., 1992, ‘The Norse Element in Scottish Gaelic’, Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Celtic Studies, Paris 1991, in Études Celtiques 29, 137-45.

 

Cox, R. A. V., 1994, ‘Descendants of Norse bólstaðr?: a re-examination of the lineage of bost & co.’, in Peoples and Settlement in North-West Ross, ed. J. R. Baldwin (Edinburgh), 43-67.

 

Cox, R. A. V., 1998, ‘Old Norse berg in Hebridean Place-Nomenclature’, in Proceedings of the XIXth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences, Aberdeen August 4-11, 1996, ed. W. F. H. Nicolaisen (Aberdeen), vol. 2, 59-65.

 

Cox, R. A. V., 2001, ‘Maintenance of the Norse legacy in Scottish Hebridean nomenclature’, in Namn i en föränderlig värld ed. Gunilla Harling-Kranck (Studier i Nordisk Filologi 78), 45-52.

 

Crawford, B. E., 1987, Scandinavian Scotland (Leicester)

 

Crawford, B.E. 1995 (ed.), Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain.

 

Crawford, Barbara E. and Taylor, Simon 2003, The Southern Frontier of Norse Settlement in North Scotland: Place-Names and History’, Northern Scotland 23, 1-76.

 

Fellows-Jensen, G. 1984, ‘Viking Settlement in the Northern and Western Isles’, in The Northern and Western Isles in the Viking World, eds A. Fenton & H. Pálsson, 148-68.

 

Fellows-Jensen, G., 1990, ‘Scandinavians in Southern Scotland?’ Nomina 13 (1989-90), 41-60.

 

Gammeltoft, Peder, 2006, ‘Scandinavian influence on Hebridean island names’, in Names through the Looking Glass: Festschrift in Honour of Gillian Fellows-Jensen, edd. P. Gammeltoft & B. Jørgenson (C. A. Reitzels Forlag A/S, Copenhagen), 53-84.

 

Gammeltoft, Peder, 2007, ‘Scandinavian Naming-Systems in the Hebrides – A way of Understanding how the Scandinavians were in Contact with Gaels and Picts?’, in West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement before 1300, edd. B. Ballin Smith, S. Taylor and G. Williams (Brill: Leiden and Boston), 479-95.

 

Grant, Alison, 2002 ‘A new approach to the inversion compounds of north-west England’, Nomina 25 (2002), 65-90.

 

Graham-Campbell, James, 2006, ‘Some reflections on the distribution and significance of Norse place-names in northern Scotland’, in Names through the Looking Glass: Festschrift in Honour of Gillian Fellows-Jensen, edd. P. Gammeltoft & B. Jørgenson (C. A. Reitzels Forlag A/S, Copenhagen), 94-118.

 

Jennings, Andrew and Kruse, Arne, 2009, ‘One coast – three peoples: names and ethnicity in the Scottish west during the early Viking period’, in Scandinavian Scotland – Twenty Years After, ed. Alex Woolf (St Andrews), 75–102.

 

Kruse, Arne, 2005, ‘Explorers, Raiders, and Settlers. The Norse Impact upon Hebridean Place-Names’, in Cultural Contacts in the North Atlantic Region: The Evidence of Names, edd. Peder Gammeltoft, Carole Hough and Doreen Waugh [Shetland], 141–56.

 

Parsons, David N., 2011, “On the Origin of ‘Hiberno-Norse Inversion-compounds’”, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 5, 115-52.
Rixson, Denis, 2010, “The Shadow of ‘Onomastic Graffiti’”, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 4, 131-58.

 

Taylor, .S., 1995, The Scandinavians in Fife and Kinross: the Onomastic Evidence’, in Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain, ed. B.E. Crawford (London), 141-67.

 

Taylor, Simon, 2004, ‘Scandinavians in central Scotland: bý-place-names and their context’, in Sagas, Saints and Settlements, edd. Gareth Williams and Paul Bibire (Leiden, Netherlands), 125-45.

OLD ENGLISH/ANGLO-SAXON

Surveys:

 

Nicolaisen, SPN, ch. 5 ‘Early English names’. To be read in conjunction with Cameron English Place Names (1996 Edition), c. 5, which summarises the new thinking on the chronology of early Anglo-Saxon place-names in England.

 

Brooke, D., 1991, ‘The Northumbrian settlements in Galloway and Carrick: an historical assessment’, PSAS 121, 295-327.
[See REGIONAL STUDIES / Galloway below for more details].

 

Clancy, T. O., 2013, ‘Many strata: English and Scots place-names in Scotland’, in Perceptions of Place: Twenty-First Century Reassessments of Place-Name Studies, ed. J. Carroll and D. N. Parsons (English Place-Name Society.Nottingham), 283-318.

 

Parsons, D., Styles, T., with Hough, C. edd., , The Vocabulary of English Place-Names (A – BOX), Centre for English Name Studies, Nottingham

 

Parsons, D., and Styles, T., edd., 2000, The Vocabulary of English Place-Names (BRACE – CÆSTER), Centre for English Name Studies, Nottingham.

 

Smith, A.H., 1956 (reprinted 1970), English Place-Name Elements, 2 vols., English Place-Name Society vols.25-6.

SCOTS (see also under GAELIC above)

For a useful listing of common Scots elements and place-names, see Ordnance Survey website, Scots Place-Names

 

Clancy, T. O., 2013, ‘Many strata: English and Scots place-names in Scotland’, in Perceptions of Place: Twenty-First Century Reassessments of Place-Name Studies, ed. J. Carroll and D. N. Parsons (English Place-Name Society, Nottingham), 283-318.

 

Murison, D.D. 1974, ‘Linguistic relationships in medieval Scotland’, in The Scottish Tradition, ed. G.W.S. Barrow, 71-83 (Edinburgh).

 

Scott, Margaret, 2003, ‘The Germanic Toponymicon of Southern Scotland: Place-Name Elements and their contribution to the Lexicon and Onomasticon’, unpublished PhD, University of Glasgow.

 

Scott, Margaret, 2004, ‘Uses of Scottish place-names in historical dictionaries’, in New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics. Selected papers from 12 ICEHL., Glasgow, 21-26 August 2002. Vol II: Lexis and Transmission, edited by C. Kay, C. Hough and I. Wotherspoon (Amsterdam, John Benjamins), 213-24.

HYDRONYMS

King, Jacob, 2005, ‘”Lochy” names and Adomnan’s Nigra Dea’, Nomina 28, 69-91.

 

King, Jacob, 2007, ‘Endrick and Lunan’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies, 150-56.

 

King, Jacob, 2008, ‘Analytical Tools for Toponymy: Their Application to Scottish Hydronymy’, unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh. Available on-line at http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/3020

ORONYMS

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LANGUAGE CHANGE and CONTACT

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SOCIETY, SETTLEMENT and ENVIRONMENT (including FLORA and FAUNA)

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PLACE-NAMES AND THE CHURCH

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INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS or NAME-TYPES (non ecclesiastical)

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BOUNDARIES and PLACE-NAMES

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REGIONAL STUDIES

Aberdeenshire

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Angus

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Argyllshire

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Arran (see Bute)

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Ayrshire

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Berwickshire

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Borders

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Buteshire Iincluding Arran and the Cumbraes)

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Caithness

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Clackmannanshire

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Dumfriesshire see Galloway

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Dunbartonshire

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East Lothian

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Fife

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Galloway [including Dumfriesshire]

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Glasgow

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Inverness-shire (excluding Western Isles)

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Kincardineshire

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Kinross-shire

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Kirkcudbrightshire

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Lanarkshire (excluding Glasgow)

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Midlothian

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Kincardineshire

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Midlothian

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Moray

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The Ochils

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The Pentlands

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Orkney

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Peeblesshire

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Perthshire

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Ross and Cromarty

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Roxburghshire

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Shetland

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The Sidlaws

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Stirlingshire

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Strathspey

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Sutherland

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Western Isles

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West Lothian

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Wigtownshire

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STREET-NAMES (by author)

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SOME IMPORTANT SOURCES FOR EARLY FORMS OF SCOTTISH PLACE-NAMES

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